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Repeatability of three-dimensional thorax and pelvis kinematics in the golf swing measured using a field-based motion capture system.
Sports Biomech. 2012 Jun;11(2):262-72
Authors: Evans K, Horan SA, Neal RJ, Barrett RS, Mills PM
Abstract
Field-based methods of evaluating three-dimensional (3D) swing kinematics offer coaches and researchers the opportunity to assess golfers in context-specific environments. The purpose of this study was to establish the inter-trial, between-tester, between-location, and between-day repeatability of thorax and pelvis kinematics during the downswing using an electromagnetic motion capture system. Two experienced testers measured swing kinematics in 20 golfers (handicap < or =14 strokes) on consecutive days in an indoor and outdoor location. Participants performed five swings with each of two clubs (five-iron and driver) at each test condition. Repeatability of 3D kinematic data was evaluated by computing the coefficient of multiple determination (CMD) and the systematic error (SE). With the exception of pelvis forward bend for between-day and between-tester conditions, CMDs exceeded 0.854 for all variables, indicating high levels of overall waveform repeatability across conditions. When repeatability was compared across conditions using MANOVA, the lowest CMDs and highest SEs were found for the between-tester and between-day conditions. The highest CMDs were for the inter-trial and between-location conditions. The absence of significant differences in CMDs between these two conditions supports this method of analysing pelvis and thorax kinematics in different environmental settings without unduly affecting repeatability.
PMID: 22900406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles
Centre of pressure patterns in the golf swing: individual-based analysis.
Sports Biomech. 2012 Jun;11(2):175-89
Authors: Ball K, Best R
Abstract
Weight transfer has been identified as important in group-based analyses. The aim of this study was to extend this work by examining the importance of weight transfer in the golf swing on an individual basis. Five professional and amateur golfers performed 50 swings with the driver, hitting a ball into a net. The golfer's centre of pressure position and velocity, parallel with the line of shot, were measured by two force plates at eight swing events that were identified from high-speed video. The relationships between these parameters and club head velocity at ball contact were examined using regression statistics. The results did support the use of group-based analysis, with all golfers returning significant relationships. However, results were also individual-specific, with golfers returning different combinations of significant factors. Furthermore, factors not identified in group-based analysis were significant on an individual basis. The most consistent relationship was a larger weight transfer range associated with a larger club head velocity (p < 0.05). All golfers also returned at least one significant relationship with rate of weight transfer at swing events (p < 0.01). Individual-based analysis should form part of performance-based biomechanical analysis of sporting skills.
PMID: 22900399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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