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The estimation of the fat free mass index in athletes.
Asian J Sports Med. 2012 Sep;3(3):200-3
Authors: Loenneke JP, Wilson JM, Wray ME, Barnes JT, Kearney ML, Pujol TJ
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to compare a practical measurement of fat free mass index (FFMI) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) value in collegiate athletes.
METHODS: Thirty-three male baseball players and 16 female gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study during their respective pre-season. Subjects visited the laboratory once and had their measurements taken in the following order: weight, height, DEXA, and Omron HBF-500.
RESULTS: The BIA device investigated was not a valid estimate of FFMI when compared to the DEXA. The TE was 0.93 kg/ m(2) for males and 0.78 kg/ m(2) for females. There were also significant mean differences between the BIA prediction and the DEXA value for males (BIA=20.6 kg/m(2) vs. DEXA=21.1 kg/m(2), P=0.007) and females (BIA=16.2 kg/m(2) vs. DEXA=17.5 kg/m(2), P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The BIA device investigated in this study did not provide a valid estimate of FFMI in male and female collegiate athletes. Although there was a general tendency for the BIA to underestimate FFMI compared to DEXA, 98% of the estimates were within plus or minus 2 kg/ m(2). Therefore, while slightly biased, BIA may provide a reasonable (± 2 kg/ m(2)) estimate of nutritional status for practitioners who are unable able to afford more expensive equipment.
PMID: 23012640 [PubMed]

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Elevated body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in soccer players aged 12-14 years.
Asian J Sports Med. 2012 Sep;3(3):168-74
Authors: Nikolaidis PT
PURPOSE: Adolescents are in increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweightness/obesity, (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BF), and (c) the association between BMI, BF and physical fitness in adolescent soccer players.
METHODS: Members (n=136, aged 13.1±0.6 yr) of competitive soccer clubs were examined for physical and physiological characteristics.
RESULTS: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 19.9% (n=27) of participants were classified as overweight. BMI was highly correlated with BF (r=0.77, P<0.001). BMI and BF were in inverse relationship with aerobic power (r= - 0.29, P<0.001; r= - 0.44, P<0.001, respectively), maximal anaerobic power (r= - 0.23, P=0.009; r= - 0.47, P<0.001) and local muscular endurance (r= - 0.36, P<0.001; r= - 0.67, P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The strong relationship between BMI and BF suggest the further use of BMI in adolescent soccer players. The findings confirmed previous observations in the general population about the negative effect of overweight and fatness on physical fitness. The prevalence of overweightness among participants was similar with what is observed in general population. Therefore, sport participation cannot guarantee physiological body mass and body composition, and it is necessary to prescribe exercise targeting body mass and fat control.

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