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Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries among physically active people accounting for an estimated 23,000 sprains — daily –that are attributed to athletic activity. (1) Basketball players suffer the highest incidence rate among sports (41.1%) followed by football (9.3%), soccer (7.9%), running (7.2%) and volleyball (4.0%). Unlike the knee and ACL injuries there is no predilection to females over males with ankle sprains occurring 50.3% and 49.7% respectively. (2) Nearly 30% of first time ankle sprains will cause chronic ankle instability (CAI) which has also been reported as a contributing factor to the early onset of osteoarthritis. (3) The effects of CAI are also seen beyond the local area of injury as altered pelvic stability. Although ankle sprains are typically treated in the physical therapy setting there are many things a personal trainer can do to help restore full function and also prevent future injuries.

A history of a previous ankle sprain is the most common predictor of this type of injury, with an incidence rate of 73%. This injury most often occurs when landing either on the ground or on another player’s foot. (4) Other causes include a sharp turn or twist, collision, fall or sudden stop. This results in functional deficits including range of motion, limited ankle dorsiflexion, impaired proprioception and balance control, and increased pelvic neuromuscular reaction time. (5,6)

Ankle Sprain

We see it, read it and perhaps even witness it – fasted cardio for weight loss. This approach is currently trending in many exercise circles, but does it really stand up to all the hype?

Let’s examine this concept through a series of practices – say for example you consume a dinner this evening containing carbohydrates. This will replenish (to varying levels) your two primary glycogen stores; the muscles and the liver within the ensuing hour or two. While we all understand the reason for storing carbohydrates within muscle, one might ask why we store carbohydrates within the liver? The reason lies with the fact that once carbohydrates enter the muscle, they cannot be released back into circulation (1, 3).

By contrast, liver cells can release glucose into the blood which is critical to our survival given how little glucose is stored in the blood at any time. The blood serves as a medium to constantly deliver glucose to various cells (e.g., brain, central nervous system) and as a source of glucose for our red blood cells which can only fuel with glucose. In other words, it is the role of the liver to preserve blood glucose, but the challenge lies with the fact that the liver only stores about 75-100g of glycogen (50g / Kg or mass) or 300 – 400 kcal worth of energy which can be depleted relatively quickly. After eating, you may not retire to sleep, but may spend a few hours awake, skimming glycogen from both muscle and liver before bed as illustrated in Figure 1. However, during your overnight sleep, while your muscle stores do not deplete, your liver tank empties due to ongoing metabolism. Lowering your glycogen stores within the liver overnight triggers the release of cortisol, a glucose-preserving hormone that responds to the biological stress of lowered liver glycogen stores).

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Great information and very well scripted.

Brian Norris - eBay
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