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Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries among physically active people accounting for an estimated 23,000 sprains — daily –that are attributed to athletic activity. (1) Basketball players suffer the highest incidence rate among sports (41.1%) followed by football (9.3%), soccer (7.9%), running (7.2%) and volleyball (4.0%). Unlike the knee and ACL injuries there is no predilection to females over males with ankle sprains occurring 50.3% and 49.7% respectively. (2) Nearly 30% of first time ankle sprains will cause chronic ankle instability (CAI) which has also been reported as a contributing factor to the early onset of osteoarthritis. (3) The effects of CAI are also seen beyond the local area of injury as altered pelvic stability. Although ankle sprains are typically treated in the physical therapy setting there are many things a personal trainer can do to help restore full function and also prevent future injuries.

A history of a previous ankle sprain is the most common predictor of this type of injury, with an incidence rate of 73%. This injury most often occurs when landing either on the ground or on another player’s foot. (4) Other causes include a sharp turn or twist, collision, fall or sudden stop. This results in functional deficits including range of motion, limited ankle dorsiflexion, impaired proprioception and balance control, and increased pelvic neuromuscular reaction time. (5,6)

Ankle Sprain

Related Articles
Association between the occurrence of falls and the performance on the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test in elderly women.
Rev Bras Fisioter. 2012 Jul-Aug;16(4):275-80
Authors: Bardin MG, Dourado VZ
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Because the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) requires agility in its performance, we hypothesized that the test may be associated with balance and risk of falls in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate and compare the association between the performance on the ISWT, the timed up and go (TUG) and the occurrence of falls in the elderly.
METHOD: Thirty-three elderly individuals (68±7 years) performed the TUG and the ISWT. Balance was assessed using the Berg Scale (BBS). Participants who fell at least twice in the last 12 months were placed in the "falls" group (FG) and all other participants comprised the control group (CG).
RESULTS: There were seventeen elderly women in the FG and 16 in the CG. Participants from the FG had a significant worse performance (p<0.05) on the TUG (8.01±0.22 vs. 6.22±0.21 s), BBS (51±3 vs. 55±1 points) and ISWT [313±79 (92±15%pred.) vs. 395±75 m (113±19%pred.)] than participants from the CG. The ISWT significantly correlated with the TUG (r=-0.75, p<0.001), BBS (r=0.50, p=0.002) and number of falls (r=0.36, p=0.031). After logistic regression, the TUG was determinant (p=0.03) and the ISWT showed a tendency to determine the occurrence of falls (p=0.05).
CONCLUSION: The ISWT was a valid measure to assess the risk of falls and balance and therefore, may be useful for the simultaneous assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and balance in older women.

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